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Space Technology

Space Items We Won’t Get Back

Elizabeth Technology September 22, 2022


Why launch a telescope into space when the ones on the Earth aren’t limited by launch weight restrictions? There are many reasons, but the biggest one is that Earth’s atmosphere and pollution get in the way. When you get to the sort of deep field imaging the Hubble is doing, any infrared fuzz from other sources at all will blur the photo and reduce the telescope’s range. The atmosphere contains and reflects a lot of radiation, all across the spectrum, so it naturally obscures quite a bit of what you’d see if you were just outside of it.

As a result, NASA uses satellite telescopes to see the farthest reaches of our universe! While Hubble was not the first of its kind (the 60s had the Orbiting Solar Observatory) it is one of the most technologically advanced, and it remained the pinnacle of space-based telescope tech for most of its life so far, receiving regular upgrades and repairs until 2009. It consists of the same ‘mirrors reflecting lights onto a central point’ that many long distance telescopes do, but without all the fuzz of the atmosphere in the way, it was able to catch an astonishing amount of detail and distance not previously seen by telescopes on Earth! While this is no longer the most powerful telescope in space thanks to the James Webb, it’s still provided tons of valuable, useful research material. It’s central mirror can capture 40,000 times more light than a human eye could. You may notice that stars in Hubble’s pictures have a distinct halo with four points of light – that’s thanks to how the side mirrors are arranged around the central one.

Cassini and the Golden Disk

Most of the stuff people send into space isn’t expected to make it back to Earth, at least in one piece – there’s not a great way to retrieve large objects from space. However, most of the objects we send out are expected to stay in orbit, or burn up. James Webb and Hubble are in orbit (although the Webb telescope is actually orbiting the sun).

The Cassini space probe, launched in 1997, is not in orbit, at least not anymore. Cassini’s original goal was to learn about Saturn and its moons. It maintained an orbit around Saturn from 2004 to 2017 when it’s orbit decayed (on purpose) so it could descend into Saturn and hopefully learn a little more on its way out of this material realm. And learn it did!

Even more far-reaching are the Golden Records, sent out on the Voyager spacecraft in 1977. Voyager was not launched towards one particular star; the closest it’s going to get, barring any encounters with space debris on the way, is a lightyear and a half away from a star in 40,000 years. The records contain sounds and sights from the planet Earth, intended as a message in a bottle, for anyone or anything that finds it. It uses pulsars, long-lived remnants of stars that ‘flash’ or ‘pulse’ EM waves at a constant rate, to orient the map, since anything complex enough to spot Voyager would also be able to see them, thus providing a reference point.

Did you think the Mars Curiosity probe singing happy birthday to itself was sad? We’ll never see Voyager again. There’s no promise anything will.

James Webb

The James Webb telescope is one of the most technologically impressive things humankind has ever managed to make. It took several hundred millions of dollars and years of hard work to make it happen. The images coming back right now (as of this article, July 14th of 2022) cover an area of the sky approximately the size of a grain of sand from our perspective on Earth. The universe is huge! That one little point shows an enormous amount of galaxies, including ones whose light has been warped as it traveled to us by something in between us and them, all different angles and distances away from us. It also captured higher-quality images of planetary nebulas and the like that we had from Hubble, but even more detailed! None of this, of course, would have been possible without Hubble coming first, and the images Hubble captured are equally impressive – the Webb scope’s design simply allows it to see further and gather more light in order to actually ‘see’ the things out there in space. Webb’s images of stars also have halos, but it has six points of light instead of four like Hubble, a result of a different and improved mirror focusing design.

When you’re dealing with such huge distances, your telescope has to begin compensating for something known as ‘Red-shifting’ – especially with things that are moving away from you or your telescope. Red-shifting means that the waves of light will begin stretching out. Wider wavelengths of light are redder than narrower ones, and so everything begins trending towards infrared light when it gets far enough away from us. If those galaxies have aliens looking back at us, they’d see us as redder than we are, too! As such, both Webb and Hubble captured information from Infrared all the way up to X-Ray bands. We can’t see X-Rays either, and have to compensate there as well.

Technology on Our End

Not all of that compensation is happening in the telescope itself – a lot of it is happening in the data processing back on Earth. The same thing goes for the Hubble. Many of the complex images of planetary nebulas or gas clouds are the result of weeks’ worth of light catching and data combining. Some celestial bodies are bright, others are dim, some gasses that compose nebulae are not visible to the human eye, etc. and so all must be visually adjusted so that we, on the other side of that enormous void, can actually put together an image we understand. This doesn’t mean the images are ‘fake’, although they’re not always the pretty colors shown in the images by NASA. NASA often color codes things to indicate where one kind of gas cloud ends and another begins, for example, or differences in density and temperature that the telescope could see in X-Ray but we couldn’t.

Just as the telescopes have gotten better, so too has the technology receiving the images back on Earth. 

Mars Global Surveyor – Survival

Elizabeth Uncategorized October 15, 2021


Mars has a lot of robot corpses on it. Some were a result of programming failure, some were simply planned shutdowns, and some continued for ages after they were supposed to expire, collecting valuable data and sending it back to Earth.

As for what we know now, we’ve learned that Mars’s atmosphere is weak and thin, but still thick enough to have a little weather, Mars itself has a very poor magnetic field, Mars has evidence of water once existing on-planet, but doesn’t have any known sources near the surface, and Mars may have had a partially molten mantle and tectonic plates to go with it at some point in it’s history.

We know that all of this is connected! Magnetic fields protect atmospheres from being blown away from solar radiation – the Earth has a particularly powerful field compared to Mars’s weaker one. Earth’s tectonic movement is linked to its liquid core and putty-like mantle; Mars’s lack of tectonic movement points to a molten inner core and a solid, cooled mantle. Water boils faster the less atmospheric pressure it’s under, so any surface water Mars had was likely evaporated and then blown off into space once some of the atmosphere disintegrated, also a result of its weak magnetic field. All of it is connected. Being able to see details up close made it possible to connect these dots on Mars.

A lot of information about Mars’s weather and overall surface comes from information sent back from orbiters – the rovers and explorers can take samples of soil and provide granular detail, but we rely on orbiters to see the bigger picture.

The Surveyor, and Launch

The new Global Surveyor was large.

The surveyor launched from Cape Canaveral in 1996, and arrived in Mars’s orbit in 1997, about ten months after it’s initial launch. The thing weighed a little over a ton, about 2,270 lbs, and was assembled in a Lockheed Martin facility in Denver; it would be solar powered, like many of Mars’s projects are, and it would use those solar panels for aerobraking as well as power. The panels allowed the orbiter to dip into the atmosphere slightly to slow and steer itself into its proper orbit, and allowed for extremely fine-tuned control of said orbit. The high point was a mere 280 miles off the surface of Mars – perfect for getting readings of that enigmatic ionosphere.

With some delays due to re-positioning, the orbiter was able to begin taking mapping photos officially in 1999, orbiting in sync with the Sun so that changes in shadows wouldn’t interfere with the images.


The global surveyor worked exactly as planned! Even better, it continued working – it lasted much longer than its initial mission goal of making it to 2001, and provided invaluable information about the planet’s surface for nearly a decade. Landing sites. Weather patterns. The entire surface. This orbiter was truly a breakthrough in an era that would come to be dominated by Mars-related robot splatters. The Global Surveyor helped direct other orbiters and sent back pictures and readings about everything on Mars, including readings about its ionosphere. In 1999, it began mapping the surface of the red planet; in 2001, its mission was extended after it had already taken more pics than all of the other Mars projects combined; in 2004, it caught some candid shots of the Spirit rover on the surface; in 2005, it captured pictures of Odyssey and Mars Express while both were on their way to the planet.

Across its long life above the surface, it also witnessed Mars’s CO2-ice poles change shape and size, witnessed new impact craters, spotted very solid evidence that Mars once had water for the first time, and witnessed storms only Mars’s weak atmosphere could produce. It sent back 240,000 pictures of Mars to Earth, and was the longest-living Martian project at the time. This was an incredible tool, one that provided incredible insight into what Mars was really like. Telescopes can see a long way – that’s nothing compared to getting up close and personal with an orbiter.


The good news couldn’t go on forever. This is an article about a dead orbiter, after all. What exactly went wrong?

The orbiter had two copies of its system software as a redundancy. One operator on Earth updated one system, and a different one updated the other; they realized the orbiter was returning errors because it used both copies in operation. An update correcting those updates introduced a memory fault, and then a command to adjust its solar panels sent the machine into a safe mode, causing it to lose contact for a few days. It misinterpreted a reading for battery overheat as a reading for battery overcharge – both are bad, and both require different solutions. A battery overheat needs repositioning to get the overheated battery out of the sun, while an overcharge needs an immediate power cut so it doesn’t short out other things.

One response puts the device into safe mode; being in safe mode was a bad thing when the battery was overheating. Once it cut power, it was stuck in the position that overheated the battery, and that led to the final, fatal issues with the orbiter. NASA managed to ping it again, weakly, but they discovered it couldn’t communicate with the robots on the ground, and so declared the mission over. It’s still in a good, stable orbit – NASA says they expect it to crash into the surface in about 2047.

This particular mission is a highlight to NASA’s turbulent history with Mars robots. Other projects before and after often suffered from failures; a couple of upcoming missions would shake faith in NASA’s ability to manage itself. This orbiter failed because of a software bug introduced in an update, the other two were doomed before they even launched!